Abstract: Discoveries over the past few decades show that planets are common. However, most discovered exoplanets are mature, so their orbital properties have gone through dynamics alteration. To test the planet formation theory, it is crucial to constrain the young planet population right after they are born in protoplanetary disks. Recent high-resolution imaging in millimeter interferometry reveals a variety of disk features, some of which may be imprinted by young protoplanets. Our recent ALMA Large Program, “The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project”(DSHARP), provides the first homogeneous overview of disk substructures.
In this work, we explore the possibility that these gaps/rings are induced by young planets, by carrying out a grid of hydrodynamics simulations with different values for viscosity, scale height, and planet mass. I will first introduce our simulations including dust particles with drift and explain how they are scaled to the dust emission at DSHARP observation wavelength. Then I will highlight our simulation demonstrating that the intricate series of gaps in the AS 209 disk can be explained by a single planet. Finally, I will explore the potential young planet population on the planet mass-semimajor axis diagram. We find the occurrence rate of giant planet > 5 MJ is consistent with direct imaging constraints. We also probe a new parameter space of Neptune to Jupiter mass planets beyond 10 au, which is not accessible to other planet searching techniques. I will also discuss the effects of self-gravity and radiative cooling on the formation of gaps and spirals by young planets.